Communication and Training Methods

PO110 
Communication and Training Methods

Tuesday, June 2, 2015, 10:30 AM - 12:30 PM

CS-110-01 OSHA’s Hazard Communication Standard (HCS 2012) Revised Compliance Directive - An Enforcement Overview

S. Rundman, USDOL-OSHA, Washington, DC

Situation/Problem: The Hazard Communication compliance directive dated March 1998 does not include the requirements from the revised Hazard Communication Standard (HCS 2012) of March 2012. The revised HCS 2012 affects General Industry, Construction, Maritime, and Agriculture employers and employees.

Resolution: A revised Hazard Communication Standard (HCS 2012) compliance directive provides OSHA’s field staff, as well as, the regulatory community with the latest compliance guidance and includes new letters of interpretation. The session will cover the revised compliance directive which establishes OSHA’s policies and procedures for uniform enforcement of the 2012 Hazard Communication Standard including the enforcement of the hazard classification, safety data sheets, labeling, and training requirements. This session will also cover current HCS 2012 enforcement data.

Results: Revised Hazard Communication Standard (HCS 2012) compliance directive will provide consistent enforcement of HCS 2012 nationwide.

Lessons Learned: A revised Hazard Communication Standard (HCS 2012) compliance directive will assist in consistent enforcement of the new HCS 2012 standard nationwide.


CS-110-02 In Plant Labeling, What Now?: Aligning the Hazardous Materials Identification System (HMIS®) with the Updated OSHA Hazard Communication Standard and GHS

S. Sides, American Coatings Association, Washington, D.C.; A. Dartt, L. Anderson, Golder Associates, St. Charles, MO

Situation/Problem: The Hazardous Materials Identification System (HMIS®) has been used for over 30 years as an in-plant labeling system as part of a comprehensive Hazard Communication Program. With the update of the OSHA Hazard Communication Standard (HCS) to align with the United Nation’s Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labeling of Chemicals (GHS), how will the HMIS® adapt to continue to provide a consistent in-plant labeling system? To ensure the HMIS® in-plant labeling system continues to be an effective communication of hazards and remains in compliance with the OSHA HCS, there was a need to update the HMIS®. This presentation will review the major updates to the HMIS® and how these updates will assist users in translating OSHA HCS and GHS hazard classification information to HMIS® ratings to ensure a continuing and effective in-plant labeling and hazard communication system. This update will have a major impact on current and new users of the HMIS®.

Resolution: The HMIS® was updated to be consistent with the requirements of the revised OSHA HCS, with a detailed focus on the hazard classifications adopted from the GHS. The revision includes a comparative table that serves as a cross-reference between HMIS® Health/Flammability/Physical Hazard rating criteria and OSHA’s alignment with the hazard classifications in GHS.

Results: Since the OSHA HCS allows for companies to utilize an in-plant labeling system of their choice, the update of the HMIS® and creation of the cross-reference table ensures that the HMIS® in-plant labeling system remains compliant with the OSHA HCS and an effective means of in-plant hazard communication. Since OSHA’s adoption of the GHS also aligns with other countries adopting the GHS, this HMIS® update will assure that the system is understood and can continue to be used by global companies seeking compliance solutions. A major tool created from this update is the comparative table that provides a cross-reference between HMIS® ratings and the OSHA alignment with GHS.

Lessons Learned: The update of the HMIS® was a necessary step to provide the users of this system with a hazard communication labeling process that is effective and compliant with the OSHA adoption of a GHS-aligned hazard communication requirement. Creating a comparative cross-reference table for HCS/GHS and HMIS ratings was challenging for certain hazard classes and these challenges will be discussed.


CS-110-03 Delivering Industrial Hygiene Training Programs to Developing Countries: An Online Path

D. Zalk, UIC GPOHP, San Jose, CA

Situation/Problem: Growth needs for Industrial Hygiene training have been established in literature and keynote presentations for over 20 years. Shifts in manufacturing and natural resource extraction industries toward developing countries has only increased over the past decades, yet basic Industrial Hygiene training remains nearly non-existent here. Achieving training in countries where work-related exposures and risks are highest remains necessary to protect the 2.5 billion workers without access to occupational safety, health, and hygiene (OSHH) expertise. 

Resolution: The outstanding efforts of the Occupational Hygiene Training Association (OHTA) and the International Occupational Hygiene Association have bridged the gap of training accessibility in developing countries. The most comprehensive OHTA training modules are available at the intermediate level for certification of Industrial Hygiene Technicians accepted internationally. The advantageous nature of this intermediate OHTA training has been harnessed at the University of Illinois in Chicago (UIC), a non-profit entity offering of the OHTA modules as part of a comprehensive online distance learning program. The Global Certificate Program in Occupational Health Practice (GPOHP) was created in 2009 and an Industrial Hygiene track began in 2012, designed for engineers and technicians working in OSHH without formal training. The online design affords students in developing countries 9-months training at home, applying practical assignments in their workplaces. 

Results: The UIC GPOHP has trained 129 students from 39 countries. As a non-profit, UIC has also offered scholarships for this training to 14 recipients from 12 countries. 

Lessons Learned: Online training successes abound, however challenges still remain including accomplishing hands-on OHTA training requirements online and offering continuing support for graduates that seek to obtain professional certification. This presentation will address the successes and challenges that have been learned through this process and will present a vision for the path forward for the near- and long-term future.


CS-110-04 Health Links ColoradoTM : Creating a Healthier, More Productive​ Workforce through Workplace Training and Education

M. Haan, Colorado School of Public Health, Aurora, CO

Situation/Problem: Keeping workers healthy and safe is significant to the health of our nation. With the continual rise of health care and workers’ compensation costs, the need for workplace interventions is imperative. Compared to 77 percent of large employers, only 27 percent of small businesses (under 500 employees) offer wellness programs. Worksite wellness programs have been shown to have an effect on employee wellbeing and can be associated for decreased workers’ compensation costs. However, small businesses face real and perceived barriers to adopting and implementing programs, including lack of resources, leadership commitment, employee engagement, and training.

Resolution: In July 2013, the Center for Worker Health & Environment within the Colorado School of Public Health launched Health LinksTM Colorado, a community-based program that certifies and advises businesses on evidence-based practices to implement sustainable workplace health and safety programs. Health LinksTM provides onsite advising to help businesses build a culture of health and safety. Trained advisors help businesses identify goals and address strategies to increase physical activity, nutrition, safety policies and practices and more. Health LinksTM is a research-based model adopted from the CDC Worksite Health ScoreCard and the WHO Healthy Workplace Framework and Model.

Results: Evaluations show that 81% of participants have found the training to increase their knowledge, attitudes and perceived values of worksite wellness, and 71% plan to apply the knowledge gained in practice in the field. Since July 2013, Health Links has trained fifty community members to conduct advising sessions resulting in 20 consultations with local small businesses.

Lessons Learned: By working with businesses throughout the state, we have learned that the value of employers showing their employees that they care by offering worksite health and safety programs goes a lot further than we think. The physical environment of the workplace impacts the wellbeing of the individuals who spend the majority of their time there. Having leaders who invest in their employees and leverage the workplace to address health promotion and health protection can lead to greater change in creating a healthier, safer and more productive workforce.


SR-110-05 Effectiveness of Educational and Behavioral Interventions to Reduce Isocyanate Exposure in the Auto Body Repair and Refinishing Industry: A Cluster-Randomized Controlled Trial

Y. Liu, University of North Texas Health Science Center, Fort Worth, TX; M. Stowe, J. Sparer, C. Redlich, Yale University, New Haven, CT

Objective: To better control isocyanate exposure and prevent occupational asthma in the auto body repair and refinishing industry, improved exposure control strategies are needed. We conducted a cluster-randomized controlled trial in this industry. The main objectives were to assess the effectiveness of educational and behavioral interventions on worker knowledge, attitudes, and self-reported and observed behaviors with regard to isocyanate exposures.

Methods: 103 workers from 14 auto body shops participated in this study which was approved by Yale University’s institutional review board. Shops with all their participating workers were randomly assigned into the intervention and control groups. The intervention group received both educational training and behavioral feedback process throughout the first 6 months. Original surveys of exposure-related knowledge and attitudes and self-reported behavior were administered and actual behaviors were observed at baseline, 6, and 12 months. Data were analyzed using the Chi-square test and linear modeling, and statistical significance was set at P < 0.05.

Results: Worker knowledge and attitudes improved significantly (p<0.05) in the intervention group [mean change (or improvement) in score 24] compared with control group (mean change in score 4) in the 6-month period. Self-reported behavior also improved significantly (p<0.05) more in the intervention group (mean change in score 20) compared to the control group (mean change in score 6). Most improvements were sustained at 12 months. At baseline, knowledge and attitudes were significant predictors of self-reported behavior (p=0.008). In all study periods, knowledge and attitude mean score was also highly correlated with self-reported behavior. Self-reported behavior was highly associated with observed behavior. Over 87% of workers who reported using a respirator for painting were observed to use a respirator, as an example.

Conclusions: Educational training and behavioral feedback improve knowledge, attitudes, and self-reported and observed behaviors in auto body workers exposed to isocyanates. Knowledge and attitude survey is a potentially useful tool to characterize auto body worker exposure risk and readiness for behavior change. In this setting training with behavioral feedback did not add significant benefit beyond the educational intervention.


CS-110-06 Influencing Safe Behavior as a Strategy for Reducing Preventable Hydrogen Sulfide Exposures

D. Lee, Shell Oil Company, League City, TX

Situation/Problem: Organizations across a broad range of industries understand the importance of influencing people’s behavior. Efforts are commonly focused towards influencing customers to select a product over competing products, influencing public opinion within local communities and influencing a workforce to perform job functions in a safe and healthy manner. The challenge is that off-the-shelf behavior based safety programs have not proven to be effective at establishing sustainable improvement and therefore do not provide an acceptable return on investment. 

Resolution: A description of how Shell’s Deer Park Refinery utilized research conducted by the United Kingdom’s Institute for Government, presented in the publication, “MINDSPACE Influencing behavior through public policy” to address normalized behaviors resulting in preventable hydrogen sulfide exposures will be presented. Included in the presentation will be Shell’s strategies for integrating the key behavioral principles identified in the publication and their impacts. These principles are Messenger, Incentives, Norms, Defaults, Salience, Priming, Affect, Commitments and Ego. 

Results: Through the implementation of the behavioral elements a need for increased respiratory protection equipment, better communication of expectations and simplification of work instruction were identified. Following the establishment of these improvements hydrogen sulfide exposure events decreased allowing for in depth investigation when exposure events did occur. These investigations identified opportunities for equipment improvements incorporating engineering controls to prevent the need for personal protective equipment. As a result of the administrative actions and behavioral improvements there has been a 79% reduction in preventable exposure events when compared to the year prior. 

Lessons Learned: Effort should be made to address each of the key principles of behavioral influence equally. This is because the hierarchy of the key principles changes from individual to individual. Behavioral influencing programs that address some of the principles but not all, limits the impact of the behavioral change among the targeted population. Making the effort to customize the key behavioral elements provided in MINDSPACE in accordance with the organizational culture improves the effectiveness of the targeted behavioral change. ​