Business Value Presentation (BoK) Interactive Version

​​Acknowledgements

Recognizing the AIHA® members and volunteers who provided their time and expertise to this project:

  • Anita Brunsting, CIH

  • David Downs, CIH, CSP, QEP, CPEA

  • Dianne Grote Adams, CIH, CSP, CPEA

  • Elyce Biddle, MS, PhD

  • Georgi Popov, PhD, QEP, CMC

  • Hooman Golshahi, MS, CIH, CRSP

  • Kathleen Murphy, CIH

  • Steve Gutmann, CIH, CPE, FAIHA

  • Thomas (TJ) Lyons, CSP, OHST

  • Tim Bushnell, MS, PhD

  • Lisa Greene, MS 

  • Steven D. Jahn, CIH, FAIHA


Background

AIHA® and its selected members and volunteers worked collaboratively to develop the technical framework, known as the Body of Knowledge (BoK), that outlines the knowledge and skills a competent person should possess and be able demonstrate when presenting a business case for interventions to reduce or eliminate adverse exposures. In June 2015, a panel of subject matter experts was appointed to develop a BoK and subsequent Job/Task Analysis (JTA) survey to collect input, perspective, and feedback from relevant stakeholders to identify the essential knowledge and skills required for persons who develop and present business case arguments in support of an IH/OH intervention. The subject matter expert project team included representatives from the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), and the industrial hygiene and environmental professions. 

In December 2015, the JTA survey was made available to external stakeholders, allied professionals, and AIHA® members and volunteers. The survey results were used to finalize the content for the Business Case Presentation BoK. 

The BoK document was approved by the subject matter expert project team and the AIHA® Board of Directors in May 2016.


Occupational Defi​nition

This document provides an organized summary of the collective knowledge and skills necessary for persons to make a business case for interventions to reduce or eliminate adverse exposures.  In accordance with Prevention through Design (PtD) concepts, interventions occur by the application of the Hierarchy of Controls and comparison of options, or by ceasing the operation completely. This Body of Knowledge (BoK) will be used by AIHA to establish a framework for the development of education programs and knowledge/skill assessment tools to aid in promoting interventions, and for the improvement of the state of professional industrial hygiene (IH) knowledge. These knowledge, skills, and abilities (KSAs) are not aligned to any one model for business case development. 

Consumer​s of the BOK

Environmental, health, and safety (EHS) staff will rely on this BOK to define the skills necessary for making a persuasive business case to the work force and management.  Academics will use it to promote the appropriate coursework to inform decision makers in the ranks of EHS management, and to expand the business case ranks for common business and engineering degrees.  Line and senior management will include it in framing human resource decisions on the appropriate skill sets for their rising talent. Regulators will be interested to see the effectiveness of interventions and always appreciate practical examples.

Bounding the Busin​ess Case

All business cases develop from a proposed intervention targeting a hazard, exposure, or risk of the enterprise that the proponent believes needs to be managed.  The creation of an ironclad problem statement is key to identifying the target of interventions (solutions).  As a result, a “scope” of the project must be defined.  From the boundary are then established the internal (line management, workers, engineering staff, etc.) and external (financial, public relations, regulators, community, etc.) stakeholders.


1.0 Establishing the ​Project Team and Stakeholders

1.1. Identify external stakeholders for their consideration of the intervention(s), especially non-financial and non-technical issues (i.e., impacts to community, local vendors, regulators, unions, etc.)

1.2. Establish the time period (interval to calculate financial values) for the evaluation of options in order to have comparable information to weigh

1.3. Establish the roles, responsibilities, accountabilities, and authorities of each team member in support of the analysis

1.4. Identify internal stakeholders for implementation obstacles with the intervention (financing process and equipment changes, operational permit changes, development of Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) and training content, etc.)

1.5. Establish specific, measurable, achievable, relevant, and time-bound (SMART) objectives for the business case in order to increase odds of successful project outcomes

1.6. Establish clear deadlines for project completion in order to come to a decision

1.7. Identify the best internal champion (advocate) for the promotion of the business case

1.8. Identify the organizational management anticipated to be affected by the intervention, and request their confirmation that all appropriate parties within the organization are represented

1.9. Use interpersonal skills to navigate the organization in order to identify key players who can aid in discovery of the impacts the intervention, and resulting consequences

1.10. Identify the critical decision makers accountable to make a final business case decision


2.0 Identifying the Business Objectives

2.1. Demonstrate an understanding of organizational Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) or other metrics across all stakeholders (including all databases involved in the business as well as Annual Reports to the Stockholders)

2.2. Locate sources of information in order to gain knowledge of business segments, internal proprietary marketing literature, and any other sources that show the top decision makers’ value structure

2.3. Utilize skills necessary to analyze one’s business case and its impact in metrics against business objectives to make the case for the intervention, as well as offer improvements to the entire organization

2.4. Evaluate how EHS opportunities will affect each of the business objectives

2.5. Effectively communicate the business objectives in order to get confirmation that they are correct

2.6. Establish an appropriate set of options for the interventions, recognizing it may be a single alternate (stop doing something) or several alternatives (several engineering designs for controls or process modifications)

2.7. Identify the regulatory constraints to the organization


3.0 Identifying the Process Impacts

3.1. Identify external stakeholders for their consideration of the intervention(s), especially non-financial and non-technical issues (i.e., emotional and ethical impacts.)

3.2. Utilize skills in process mapping to understand all inputs (e.g., manpower, methods, machinery) in order to account for all impacts from the intervention

3.3. Utilize skills in mapping the impact of the intervention within a Management of Change framework (lead time in procurements, and process impacts such as installation, testing, procedure development, training, and qualification of work force) in order to account for those additional impacts from the intervention


4.0 Identifying the Financial Impacts of the Intervention

4.1. Demonstrate an understanding of financial analysis models

4.2. Apply knowledge of sensitivity analysis methods in order to identify the inputs to the business case having the greatest impact

4.3. Assess the costs of unplanned and planned absence due to injury and illness

4.4. Apply knowledge of comparative methods of analysis in order to evaluate outputs of various options for interventions

4.5. Demonstrate an understanding of financial theory tools, including discounting and present value, the criteria for selecting discount rates, inflation adjustment, and alternative ways of summarizing the overall financial benefits and costs of investments in prevention

4.6. Determine how many occupational injury and illness cases that are not reported to workers’ compensation, and assess the magnitude of their probable medical, absence, or productivity costs

4.7. Determine the impact of claims, any under-reporting of injuries and estimated or actual claim cost on workers’ compensation insurance premiums using the applicable experience rating formula, or with the assistance of reports from a workers' compensation insurer

4.8. Demonstrate an understanding of financial theory

4.9. Estimate the cost of loss of an employee as a result of an injury, illness, or failure to control exposure and risk

4.10. Access and interpret information on the cost of workers’ compensation claims that are relevant to any proposed prevention effort, including paid and reserve costs for medical and indemnity payments

4.11. Distinguish and identify all avoided costs and liabilities associated with the various options relative to intervention, and its contrary position (doing nothing different)

4.12. Utilize skills sets in effective presentation of the intervention attributes affecting the targeted audience (e.g., skeptical engineers or safety personnel, union members afraid of reductions in personnel, etc.)

4.13. Demonstrate an understanding of risk assessment and risk reduction analytical methodologies


5.0 Identifying the Non-Financial Benefits of the Intervention

5.1. Establish an analytical framework in non-financial terms for exposures and risks to be controlled when financial impacts are lacking or to strengthen the argument for change

5.2. Identify the underlying values that drive benefits from the intervention; these might include risk reduction, company image/reputation, healthy workplace, a reputation for employee engagement and job satisfaction, good public relations image for the company

5.3. Utilize skill sets in effective presentation of the intervention attributes affecting the targeted audience (e.g., skeptical engineers or safety personnel, union members afraid of reductions in personnel, etc.)

5.4. Utilize skills promoting the engagement of others reluctant to embrace the proposed change

5.5. Recognize the variety of ways in which reducing exposures and risk in the workplace can contribute to higher productivity and quality, as well as ways in which they sometimes reduce productivity and quality


6.0 Summarizing and Delivering Impacts of the Intervention

6.1. Frame the message of the intervention using corporate tools (LEAN, DMAIC, Six Sigma, Total Quality, etc.) of the organization

6.2. Match proposed impacts to business objectives in order to make the most persuasive argument for change

6.3. Use critical thinking skills to determine the key components (both financial and non-financial impacts) of the evaluation process to impacted stakeholders

6.4. Establish the timing of implementation for each of the elements of a Management of Change Program in order to successfully implement the intervention

6.5. Demonstrate an understanding of the organization’s Management of Change functions so the sequencing of implementation (budgeting, program revisions, procedures, documentation changes, followed by training) is most effective

6.6. Use critical thinking skills to determine the key results (both financial and non-financial impacts) of the EHS interventions, evaluation process to be conveyed forward to decision makers)

6.7. Anticipate barriers and the tough questions that may occur from the audience in front of you; prepare for facilitating those actions to overcome barriers


7.0 Presenting the Business Case for the Intervention

7.1. Outline the project team and its consideration of other alternatives to the selected business case for intervention

7.2. Identify and address the perspectives of each stakeholder in attendance when the final proposal is delivered

7.3. Learn fundamental tenets of human behaviors to effectively monitor the verbal and non-verbal feedback of your audience

7.4. Use effective presentation soft skills to include knowing your audience, staging the room for maximum impact, organizing information in visual formats for audience focus, and concluding the presentation with a question that will unambiguously ask for a decision (proceed, don’t proceed, etc.)

7.5. Prepare useful graphics and images over data tables and statistical files for supporting information

7.6. Use critical thinking skills in order to anticipate your audience questions regarding the intervention, especially negative responses (i.e., “that will never work with our workers because…..”) so that objections are turned into opportunities

7.7. Demonstrate (through practice) effective presentation skills so that concise, efficient delivery of the problem, consideration of options, and selected option are defended

7.8. Use effective presentation technical skills in selling the business case for the intervention​