Creator of the “Risk = Hazard + Outrage” formula for risk communication, Peter M. Sandman is one of the world's preeminent risk communication speakers and consultants.

A Rutgers University professor from 1977 to 1995, Dr. Sandman founded the Environmental Communication Research Program (ECRP) at Rutgers in 1986, and was its Director until 1992. During that time, ECRP published over 80 articles and books on various aspects of risk communication. In 1995 Dr. Sandman left the university and became a full-time consultant. He received his PhD in Communication from Stanford University in 1971.

“The engine of risk response is outrage,” Dr. Sandman argues. “Sometimes the problem is too little outrage; people are apathetic, and I help my client arouse more outrage so they protect themselves. Other times the problem is too much outrage; people are excessively angry or frightened – usually because of things my client has done wrong – and I help find ways to calm the situation. Still other times, the outrage is rightly high about a genuinely serious risk, and the job is to help people bear it, sustain it, and act on it.”

An AIHA CPAG initiative recently identified key content from Dr. Sandman that can help IH and OEHS professionals, practitioners, and leaders improve their risk communication skills for various audiences.