This major group also includes establishments engaged in publishing newspapers, books, and periodicals, regardless of whether or not they do their own printing. News syndicates are classified in Services, Industry 7383. Establishments primarily engaged in textile printing and finishing fabrics are classified in Major Group 22, and those engaged in printing and stamping on fabric articles are classified in Industry 2396. Establishments manufacturing products that contain incidental printing, such as advertising or instructions, are classified according to the nature of the products for example, as cartons, bags, plastics film, or paper.

Gravure printing is a process in which the image to be printed is produced through depressions or recesses on the surface of the printing plate. The plate is formed by cutting hand or by using acids or other chemicals to etch the plate along the lines of the desired image. Paper pressed to the plate then absorbs ink from the depressed areas. Varying the depth of the depressions provides tonal gradations in the printed image.

Lithographic offset printing, is a widely used printing technique in which the image on a printing plate is printed on a rubber cylinder and then transferred to the printing material. The rubber cylinder gives great flexibility, clarity of image, and speed when compared with other printing techniques.

Reports indicate the presence of irritant dermatitis and other skin conditions in employees in the printing and publishing industry; this is linked to the frequent use of solvents as well as exposure to printing ink mist, diesel oil, and paper dust. Employees in the sector also reported pulmonary symptoms such as chronic bronchitis.

Note: The following table represents only the potential occupational health concerns related to the entire paper and allied products industries based on a job task or work activity, and any related OSHA standards for regulatory compliance. The information presented does not indicate or suggest a relative risk of exposure based on the location within the table nor provides any exposure information. Health risks associated with fatigue, working long hours, and other psychosocial disorders are not addressed.

The focus of this information is to provide guidance to understand the occupational health hazards from chemical substances, physical and biological agents, radiological, ergonomic, and environmental hazards from exposure to plants and animals. Potential occupational health exposures in this industry were derived from the OSHA Integrated Management Information System database between 1984 to 2020. Additional information was obtained from the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Health Hazard Evaluations performed by request of employee representatives and organizations from 1978 to 2020.

Worker Exposure Profiles in Printing Publishing and Allied Industries

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