$295 Member/$345 Non-Member

Recorded in June 2020, this course will help you build a business case for implementing corrective action with ventilation controls or source controls for 3D printing processes.

As 3D printing becomes more common and prevalent, users and employers are becoming aware of 3D printer emissions and the potential adverse health impacts. Extensive research shows that 3D printing with fused thermoplastic filaments (FFF) will emit high levels of ultrafine/fine particles and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The emission levels are related to the feedstock applied and printer operation and may exceed recommended exposure levels for indoor environments. In this course, a summary of the published findings will be presented along with research studies performed by NIOSH, Georgia Institute of Technology, and Underwriters Laboratories Inc. Information to be presented includes: a) aerosol characteristics; b) techniques for measuring particles and VOCs; c) aerosol models; d) indoor air exposure models; e) toxicity assessment methodologies; f) ANSI/CAN/UL 2904 standard for measurement and assessment protocols for the printer emissions; g) school and occupational field studies; and h) research results. Exposure to 3D printer emissions is correlated to negative health effects. Room situations, printer operations, feedstocks, and environmental conditions can impact exposure concentrations.

Course outline

  • Emissions from 3D Printing
  • Toxicity Associated with 3D Printing Emissions
  • Exposure Levels from Various 3D Printing Sites
  • Control Techniques to Minimize Emission Exposures
  • Volatile Organic Compounds, Particulate Matter, and Metal Emissions
  • Potential Health Effects from 3D Printing Emissions

Course outcomes

Upon completion, students will be able to:

  • Identify chemical and particle emission characteristics of 3D printing.
  • Use aerosol formation and human exposure models.
  • Select equipment and methodologies for measuring real-time chemical/particle emissions.
  • Determine particle size distributions, the types of equipment required and retrieve/analyze the data.
  • Evaluate health hazards based on particle sizes, emission levels and rates.
  • Calculate exposure concentration based on indoor air models.
  • Communicate hazards based on regulatory requirements and guidelines.
  • Train users to select lower-emitting 3D printers and ventilation/local exhaust controls.

Who will benefit

IH professionals and others who are frequently tasked with evaluating exposures from 3D printers.

Time to complete

Participants will have 90 days from the date of purchase to view the session recordings and submit the online evaluation for credit.


Have questions or need additional information? Contact us.


Marilyn Black, PhD, LEED AP

Dr. Marilyn Black is a Vice President, Senior Technical Advisor, and Fellow of Underwriters Laboratories Inc. She is the founder and former chairperson for both UL Air Quality Sciences, a leading testing and research organization focused on chemical and biological air pollution, and the GREENGARD Environmental Institute, which provides a third party indoor air quality certification program for building materials, electronics, and furnishings. Dr. Black is a leader in the study of low dose chemical exposure on human health, and in finding ways to reduce that exposure. She is an active participant in national and international scientific organizational initiatives, research projects, and community outreach programs. She has presented and published over 200 papers on indoor air quality and environmental exposure with a special interest in children’s health and was recently awarded the prestigious national Keystone Center Leadership in Environment Award. Dr. Black received a Ph.D. from the Georgia Institute of Technology, an M.S. from the University of Florida, and a B.S. from the University of Virginia. She is the founder of the Khaos Foundation, forwarding a mission of research and education for the betterment of children’s health and wellbeing.

Aika Davis, PhD

Dr. Aika Davis is a Research Scientist in Chemical Safety and Human Health at Underwriters Laboratories Inc. Her research focuses on characterizing chemical pollutants from emission sources and understanding exposure pathways, levels, and the impact on human health. She holds Ph.D. and M.S. in Environmental Engineering and a B.S. in Mechanical Engineering from Georgia Institute of Technology.

Aleksandr Stefaniak, PhD, CIH

Dr. Aleks Stefaniak is a Research Industrial Hygienist with the Respiratory Health Division at NIOSH. His research is focused broadly on exposure assessment, with emphasis on the measurement of engineered nanomaterials and characterization of office equipment emissions in the context of human exposure potential.

Rodney Weber, PhD

Dr. Rodney Weber is a Professor at the Georgia Institute of Technology in the School of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences. He received a Ph.D. in Mechanical Engineering from the University of Minnesota and has worked as an Assistant Scientist at Brookhaven National Laboratory and Professor at Georgia Tech. As an atmospheric experimental scientist, R. Weber’s research includes investigating the sources, transformations, fates, chemical and optical properties, and health effects of particulate matter. Recent work involves developing new instrumentation for measurement of PM2.5 properties that have plausible physiological links to adverse health responses, and applying these methods to air pollution - health studies. The sources, chemical evolution and role of light-absorbing particle organic species on aerosol optical properties and connections between anthropogenic and biogenic emissions on PM2.5 formation are also studied.

Qian Zhang, PhD

Dr. Qian Zhang is a post-doc researcher in Chemical Safety and Human Health in Underwriters Laboratories Inc., a nonprofit research organization. Her research focuses on particle emissions and their health impacts from emerging technologies, like 3D printing. She holds a Ph.D. degree in Environmental Engineering from Georgia Institute of Technology.